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Source file: abstract-data-types.fut

Abstract data types

Sometimes we wish to define a data type that does not expose its representation. Such data types are called abstract or opaque. Suppose we wish to define operations on normalised vectors in 2D space. If we directly exposed the representation, then it would be easy to accidentally break normalisation. To avoid mistakes, we need all operations to go through functions that are careful to re-normalise when needed.

In Futhark, this kind of information hiding is done via the module system. First we define a module type that describes an interface consisting of abstract types and operations on those types:

module type normvec = {
  type vec
  val mk : {x: f64, y: f64} -> vec
  val unmk : vec -> {x: f64, y: f64}
  val add : vec -> vec -> vec

The module type states that there is some abstract type vec, a function mk that can turn records into vecs, and a function unmk that can turn vecs into records. The idea is that the mk function will perform normalisation. The module type also specifies a function add for adding normalised vectors. This is of course a much smaller set of operations than you’d need for real programming, but it’s enough to show the idea.

We can define a module that implements the normvec module type like this:

module normvec : normvec = {

Note that module names and module type names live in different namespaces, and there is no requirement that the name of a module must match the module type it is implementing.

We first define the vec type, as a record.

  type vec = {x: f64, y: f64}

The definition of vec is visible inside the module itself, but outside users are only able to use it through the operations specified by the normvec module type.

The mk function normalises the given coordinates.

  def mk {x, y} : vec =
    let norm = f64.sqrt (x**2+y**2)
    in {x = x / norm, y = y / norm}

The unmk function just returns the coordinates.

  def unmk {x, y} = {x, y}

Finally, the add function adds the components, then re-normalises the vector.

  def add (a: vec) (b: vec) : vec =
    {x = (a.x+b.x)/2, y = (a.y+b.y)/2}


Now we can use the module as e.g:

> let a = {x=2,y=1}
> let b = {x=2,y=10}
> let c = normvec.add a b
> normvec.unmk c
{x = 0.54527166306905f64, y = 0.7138971355954391f64}

If we directly tried to access a.x, we would get a type error.

Note that if you actually load this into futhark repl to play around with it, you’ll be able to directly observe the contents of normvec.vec values. To ease debugging, the interpreter does not respect abstraction boundaries when prettyprinting.

See also

Complex numbers, Triangular arrays, Nominal types, AD with dual numbers, Three-dimensional vectors.

Reference manual: Module System.